Po-Boy Sandwich, Martin Brothers

Stop 4 of 6 in the New Orleans Food History tour

As with many culinary innovations, the poor boy or po-boy sandwich has attracted many legends regarding its origins. However, documentary evidence confirms that stories about one particular restaurant were right.

Bennie and Clovis Martin left their Raceland, Louisiana, home in the Acadiana region in the mid-1910s for New Orleans. Both worked as streetcar conductors until they opened Martin Brothers' Coffee Stand and Restaurant in the French Market in 1922. The years they had spent working as streetcar operators and members of the street railway employees' union would eventually lead to their hole-in-the-wall coffee stand becoming the birthplace of the poor boy sandwich.

Following increasingly heated contract negotiations, the streetcar motormen and conductors struck beginning July 1, 1929. The strike was not about wages. The survival of the carmen union's control of hiring and 1,100 jobs was in question. Transit strikes throughout the nation provoked emotional displays of public support, and the 1929 strike ranks among the nation's most violent.

When the company attempted to run the cars on July 5 using "strike breakers" (career criminals brought in from New York) brickbats and jeering crowds stopped them. More than 10,000 New Orleanians gathered downtown and watched strike supporters disable and then burn the first car operated by a strike breaker. A highly sympathetic public participated in greatest numbers by avoiding the transit system, which remained shut down for two weeks. The late New Orleans Fire Department Superintendent William Mc Crossen experienced the strike as a teenager: "Dare not—nobody, nobody would ride the streetcars. Number one, they were for the carmen. Number two, there was a danger [in riding the cars]." Brickbats greeted the few streetcars that ran. Small and large businesses donated goods and services to the union local.

The many support letters included one from the Martin Brothers promising, "Our meal is free to any members of Division 194." Their letter concluded: "We are with you till h--l freezes, and when it does, we will furnish blankets to keep you warm."
In order to maintain their promise, the Martins provided large sandwiches to the strikers. Bennie Martin said, "We fed those men free of charge until the strike ended. Whenever we saw one of the striking men coming, one of us would say, 'Here comes another poor boy.'" Too often lost in the telling of the story is the irony in the use of this term. Those once part of the "aristocracy of labor" now relied upon charitable contributions to feed their families. Walking home from the French Market (since they certainly would not ride the transit system) carrying large sandwiches, the "poor boys" provided free publicity for the generous Martin Brothers.

Images

Martin Brothers Coffee Stand & Restaurant

Martin Brothers Coffee Stand & Restaurant

Likely the earliest version of their French Market Restaurant, this image may date from 1922. Courtesy of Martin Family View File Details Page

Clovis & Bennie Martin

Clovis & Bennie Martin

Clovis, center foreground, and Bennie, right. Courtesy of Martin Family View File Details Page

French Market Coffee Stand, circa mid-1920s

French Market Coffee Stand, circa mid-1920s

Several more employees pose for this shot. Just under the words French Market, one can read: "Open Day and Night." Note that this working man's restaurant included seating for African-American customers. Courtesy of Martin Family View File Details Page

Circa Late 1920s

Circa Late 1920s

"Oyster Loaves" and "Oyster 1/2 Loaves" indicate that this image dates from before the term "Poor Boy" was applied to their sandwiches. Courtesy of Martin Family View File Details Page

Burned strikebreaker car, July 5, 1929

Burned strikebreaker car, July 5, 1929

After burning the first car to run during the strike, a mob of several hundred strikers and supporters begins to burn a railway company truck. Mizell-Nelson Collection View File Details Page

"Our meal is free to any members of Division 194."

"Our meal is free to any members of Division 194."

Generosity extended towards their former union brothers began with meals offered in their restaurant. Courtesy of Louisiana Research Collection, Tulane University Libraries View File Details Page

Audio

Louisiana Eats, Poppy Tooker

Louisiana Eats, produced and hosted by Poppy Tooker, is heard weekly on NPR affiliates throughout the state. This 2010 segment features the story of the naming of the poor boy or po-boy sandwich. Audio Engineer, Thomas Walsh, WWNO, 89.9 FM. View File Details Page

Video

John Gendusa and the "Poor Boy" loaf

Excerpted from the Streetcar Stories documentary, the final part of the 1929 streetcar strike segment explains how the Martin and Gendusa families collaborated to produce the new sandwich loaf.

View File Details Page

Cite this Page:

Michael Mizell-Nelson, “Po-Boy Sandwich, Martin Brothers ,” New Orleans Historical, accessed July 20, 2017, http://www.neworleanshistorical.org/items/show/480.
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